Adipose Tissue and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Role in Regeneration of Cleft Alveolus in Dogs

Abstract

Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) compared to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on the regeneration of surgically created cleft alveolus in dogs. Methods: Split mouth experimental study was performed on twelve healthy mongrel dogs. The dogs were divided into two groups (A and B): Ingroup A, the surgically created alveolus was transplanted with AT-MSCs, scaffold and growth factors at the experimental side (right side of the maxilla). Ingroup B, the surgically created alveolus was transplanted with BM-MSCs, scaffold and growth factors at the experimental side (right side of the maxilla). In the control side (left side of the maxilla), the surgically created alveolus was transplanted with scaffold and growth factors only. The flaps were replaced and sutured with resorbable sutures. Bone regeneration was evaluated clinically and radiographically after 1.5 and 3 months following dogs’ scarification. The data were evaluated with descriptive and t-test methods (p=0.05). Results: Stem cells whether AT-MSCs or BM-MSCs accelerate the healing and regeneration of the defected area by increasing the bone width and surface area; providing the bone quantity and quality as early as 1.5 and 3 months. Conclusions: AT-MSCs and BM-MSCs are attractive tools in bone regeneration. AT-MSCs in experimental studies showed that their effectiveness is comparable to BM-MSCs, in addition to its low cost, ease of harvesting and safer procedure to obtain stem cells as well as less risk of infection.