A Cross-Sectional Survey to Assess Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices in Patients with Hypothyroidism in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Samer Aladwani , Muteb Eid Alosaimi , Moahmmed F. B. Muammar , Qusai T. Alwazna , Fahed H. Aman , Naif K. Alomar , Osamah M. Alshahrani , Talal M. Alnahas , Feras F.B. Oways

Abstract

Background: Without corrective action, patients suffering from hypothyroidism may exhibit increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, dysrhythmias and fractures, and are also at risk of adverse effects on bone mass, lipid metabolism, blood pressure, and a declined cognitive function. Methods: We adopted a cross-sectional survey to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices in patients with hypothyroidism in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Participants for the study were recruited from 04/08/2019 till 24/09/2019 through convenience sampling method. For an individual to participate in the study, they were required to be 18 years of age and diagnosed with hypothyroidism, a Saudi citizen and a resident of Riyadh. The participants were assessed on a number of indicators; demographics, questions on knowledge domain, questions on attitude domain, and questions on practice domain. In our construct, the knowledge section consisted of 20 factual statements to assess various indicators of hypothyroidism, including the symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment. Results: 55% of the respondents were female and 45% were male. The study indicates that hypothyroidism occurs at a higher prevalence in females in the 45+ age category, which is consistent with previous literature. Equally, 24% of the respondents strongly disagree that women are at a greater risk of developing hypothyroidism and should be tested at regular intervals for hypothyroidism; while, 19% of the respondents agree that women are at a greater risk of developing hypothyroidism and should be tested at regular intervals for hypothyroidism. The findings indicate a worrying lack of knowledge about hypothyroidism among residents of Riyadh. Conclusion: There is a need for greater public education and awareness in Saudi Arabia to improve the level of knowledge about hypothyroidism.