Anti-hemolytic Activity and Antioxidant Studies of Caralluma quadrangula: Potential for Nutraceutical Development in Cancers and Blood Disorders

Showket Hussain Bhat , Mohammad Fahad Ullah , Faisel Mohammad Abu-Duhier

Abstract

Background: Since ancient times, plants and its derivatives have been used in traditional medicine to cure human diseases. In the past few decades, the research on medicinal plants has gained significant attention due to the medicinal potential of certain phytochemicals against cancer and metabolic disorders. The present study has examined the alcoholic extract of Caralluma quadrangula (Ca qu) for its quantitative and qualitative composition and its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hemolytic properties. The findings have potential implications for plausible intervention in reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated pathologies. Materials and Methods: An 80 % aqueous-methanol extract of areal parts of Ca qu was prepared. It was subjected to qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis. Anti-oxidant potential was determined by inhibition of 2,2-Diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’ -Azino-bis-3- ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals; while, anti-hemolytic activity was determined by the ability of the extract to protect human RBCs from oxidative insult. Results: The extract showed abundance of polyphenolic and flavonoid compounds at concentrations of 8.6 GAE % w/w and 0.90 mg QE % w/w, respectively.  Tannins, alkaloids and saponins were present at the concentration of 8.50 mg TAE % w/w, 2.8 mg % w/w and 20.07 mg % w/w, respectively. Qualitative HPLC column chromatography indicated the presence of rutin in the extract. In an increasing concentration range from 31.25 to 2000 μg/ml the extract provided significant protection to RBCs from membrane damage induced by ROS. In the DPPH and ABTS inhibition assays, the extract showed a dose-dependent inhibition of the radicals in the concentration range of 50 -1000 μg/ml and 10-250 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The hydro-alcoholic extract of Ca qu contains several classes of important phytochemicals with known therapeutic significance. The extract possesses significant anti-oxidant and anti-hemolytic potential as demonstrated in standard assays. The findings can be exploited for advanced studies on pharmacological premises for intervention in different diseases that are associated with an imbalanced production of ROS/free radicals in cells including certain anemic disorders and cancers. The formulations derived from the plant are expected to possess therapeutic advantage as nutraceuticals or as adjuvants with standard treatment regimen.