Evaluation of Recent Surgical Updates Regarding Diagnosis and Management of Intestinal Obstruction

Muluk Naif Alharbi , Felwah Mohammed Yamani , Marooh Hussain Mnayan , Abdulaziz Ab-dulrhman Alzarea , Abdullah Abdulrhman Alzarea , Lama Hesham Shahata , Ayman Abdullah Alqayidi , Zahraa Ahmad Alahmad , Orjuana Mansoor Khudari , Abdullah Mohammed Alzahrani

Abstract

Background: Intestinal obstruction is a painful abdominal condition that is ultimately managed by surgical meth-ods.Proximal intestinal obstructions usually present clinically with pain, while distal obstructions have pronounced vomiting and absolute constipation. The junior surgeon should take careful note of anamnesis, as the obstruction is mainly a clinical diagnosis. Objectives: We focus in this paper on intestinal obstruction, diagnostic approach, and surgical interventions, and only relevant studies are discussed. Methodology: PubMed database was used for articles selection, and papers on intestinal obstruction and pseudo-obstruction were obtained and reviewed. Conclusion: In summary, certain factors increase the vulnerability of patients and developing intestinal obstruc-tion, most notably including adhesions, neoplasms, and abdominal herniation. Exploratory laparot-omy is indicated when patients do not improve within 48 hours of conservative therapy, or perforat-ed bowels are seen on radiography (as air-under-the-diaphragm). Colonoscopy is valuable in ruling out mechanical obstruction and decompressing a distended bowel. Team effort is needed to avoid non-urgent operation, and to identify and treat current dehydration and correct depleted electro-lytes, while also preventing systemic inflammation, ischemia, and sepsis.