The Role of Microparticles in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. An Updated Review
Microparticles (MPs) are vesicles of less than 1 μm in diameter (submicron vesicles) shed from plasma membranes to cell activation, injury, and apoptosis response. They consisted of membrane proteins and cytosolic material from the cell they originated. These vesicles are vital mediators of pathological and physiological cellular processes. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a regular endocrine, menstrual and metabolic condition that affects 10-15% of females in their reproductive period. Numerous researches have described the association between low-grade chronic inflammation and PCOS; however, the relation is not well understood. Chronic low-grade inflammation is reflected as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and endothelial dysfunction, and it is linked to abdominal obesity and insulin resistance (IR). MPs may be useful biomarkers for the early detection of cardiovascular disease and thrombosis in PCOS patients. In March 2020, the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) became pandemic, wreaking havoc on healthcare systems worldwide and the global economy. Obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have all been linked to COVID-19 increased risk of infection. PCOS patients have recently been identified as an underserved and potentially high-risk demographic for COVID-19 problems. This article tried to review and present recent studies that explored the role of microparticles in polycystic ovarian syndrome.