++Diagnostic Usefulness of HOMA-β and HOMA-IR in Diabetes Mellitus – A Review

Abstract

Homeostatic model of assessment (HOMA) is a statistical method for assessing pancreatic β – cell function (HOMA - β) and insulin resistance (HOMA – IR). Both are calculated using fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and insulin but with different formulae. A modified form of HOMA is emerging using Connective Peptide (C - Peptide) concentration, but studies based on this have been very limited. More than 500 research papers have been published about the use of HOMA to assess Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), but the main area of its application is in the field of DM. HOMA – IR has been diagnostically more useful in all types of DM and obesity, in assessing prediabetes and detecting DM in the elderly. It has also been found to be useful during the gestational period. HOMA indices have been widely used along with Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c), but good standardization is very important for better clinical use of HOMA. This review article has given condensed highlights on the clinical usefulness of HOMA in monitoring the control of DM at various stages using simple formulae to calculate HOMA indices. The parameters used were FPG and insulin. HOMA indices were also compared with other parameters such as HbA1c and two emerging parameters Obstatin and Visfatin, but very few studies have been reported about their clinical usefulness. The contents of this review articles can be very useful for future researchers to expand the application of HOMA indices to the other diseases induced by the uncontrolled DM.